Nests in Walls
Honey bees may establish a nest inside the wall of the house or other building causing a nuisance, a health hazard and a serious threat to the structure. However, not all “bees” that nest in the wall are honey bees. It is much more likely that the insects that look and behave like honey bees and are nesting inside the house wall or foundation are yellowjacket wasps. It is easy to confuse the two insects so careful examination rather than assumption based on distant observation is essential.
Honey bees and yellowjackets are nearly identical in size, shape, general appearance and behavior. Color is the easiest distinguishing characteristic. Honey bees are fuzzy and golden brown. Yellowjackets are shiny and lemon yellow with black markings. If you are not sure of the pest identification collect several dead specimens and take them to your county extension office or request ISU Extension pamphlet PM- 1671, “Wasp and Bee Control.”
Honey bee colonies in wall or attic voids are a much more serious problem than yellowjacket wasps. Yellowjacket colonies are annual and the wasps will disappear in the winter with or without treatment. Honey bee nests may last for many years without treatment and will contain honey stored inside the walls. The honey can ruin walls and ceilings if it is not removed.
Salvaging honey bee colonies from wall voids is usually not practical, so extermination is recommended. Wild honey bees are of very little or no value to a professional bee keeper as they are often heavily infested with parasites and diseases.
Treat nests in walls by injecting an insecticide dust (e.g., Sevin or permethrin garden dust) in the nest entrance during the night. Wear protective clothing and approach the nest with caution. Do not shine your flashlight directly into the nest opening. Dispense several puffs of dust into the nest opening by using a hand duster or an empty, soft plastic bottle. Place no more than 2 tablespoons of insecticide dust into a dry, empty liquid detergent bottle. Shake lightly, hold the bottle to the nest opening and squeeze firmly. Control will usually be achieved within a few days. Retreat after 2 or 3 days if necessary. Do not plug a nest opening in a house wall until you are sure all activity within the nest has stopped. “Wasp and hornet” aerosol sprays may not provide effective control of honey bee nests inside walls, depending on how far the nest is from the nest opening.
Remove and discard the comb and honey after the bees are killed. Do not salvage these materials if the colony was treated with insecticide. If the nest is not removed, the wax may melt or be riddled by wax moth larvae and begin to leak honey. If there is much honey it can seep through interior walls, leaving a permanent stain. Bees from other colonies and scavenger insects may be nuisances as long as the honey remains.
Honey bees are valuable and provide tremendous benefits, specifically pollination, honey and wax. However there are times and places where honey bees create an annoyance and a nuisance, and for sting-sensitive individuals, a health threat. One such incidence is when honey bees swarm.
Swarming is a natural part of the development of a honey bee colony. Swarming is a method of propagation that occurs in response to crowding within the colony. Swarming is an advantage to the bees but is a distinct disadvantage for beekeepers. Consequently, beekeepers manage hives to reduce the incidence of swarming to the extent possible. Swarming usually occurs in late spring and early summer and begins in the warmer hours of the day.
Honey bee swarms may contain several hundred to several thousand worker bees, a few drones and one queen. Swarming bees fly around briefly and then cluster on a tree limb, shrub or other object. Clusters usually remain stationary for an hour to a few days, depending on weather and the time needed to find a new nest site by scouting bees. When a suitable location for the new colony, such as a hollow tree, is found the cluster breaks up and flies to it.
Honey bee swarms are not highly dangerous under most circumstances. Swarming honey bees feed prior to swarming, reducing their ability to sting. Further, bees away from the vicinity of their nest (offspring and food stores) are less defensive and are unlikely to sting unless provoked.
In most situations when a honey bee swarm is found on a tree, shrub or house you do not need to do anything. Swarms are temporary and the bees will move on if you patiently ignore them. Stay back and keep others away from the swarm, but feel free to admire and appreciate the bees from a safe distance.
Only if a serious health threat is present because of the location of the swarm, such as in a highly traveled public area, should you need to do anything with a cluster. An experienced beekeeper may be willing to gather the swarm and relocate it for you. Some beekeepers collect swarms and add them to their apiary. Others are willing to relocate swarms as a public service and may rightfully charge a fee. To locate a beekeeper willing to capture swarms check with local authorities such as pest control operators, police and fire departments and the local extension office. There is no central or state-wide registry of beekeepers that will capture swarms. You can also contact your district officer of the Iowa Honey Producers Association at www.abuzzaboutbees.com
As a last resort, you can spray a swarm of bees with soapy water or synthetic insecticide. Wait until after dark if possible. Soapy water sprays (up to 1 cup of liquid dishwashing detergent in a gallon of water) are preferred because the bees die peacefully; aerosol wasp and hornet sprays are more likely to irritate and agitate the bees before they die, increasing the chances of being stung. Spraying a honey bee swarm is a risky operation because of the large number of bees.