DES MOINES - State, federal and extension experts are encouraging Iowa farmers to stay vigilant in their efforts to control Palmer amaranth. Iowa lawmakers added this fast-growing weed to Iowa’s noxious weed list in July as a response to a significant increase in the presence of Palmer across Iowa in 2016.
AMES, Iowa — Harrison County is home to a new project focused on combating weed resistance as part of a statewide pest resistance management program led by Iowa State University.
The lack of reliable traits to distinguish Palmer amaranth and waterhemp during vegetative stages complicates efforts at stopping the spread of Palmer amaranth across the state. However, both plants should be in full reproductive mode at this time, greatly simplifying the identification of the two amaranths.
While most agronomists and weed scientists prefer to identify weeds using vegetative traits, the small bracts (modified leaves) associated with flowers of Palmer amaranth and waterhemp are the most, if not only, reliable way to differentiate the two species. Palmer amaranth has relatively large, green bracts that extend well beyond the other flower parts, whereas on waterhemp the bracts are similar in length to the tepals surrounding the seed capsule. On close examination, Palmer amaranth’s bracts on mature female plants are easily seen protruding from the plant’s seedheads without the use of a hand lens. Redroot and smooth pigweed also have large bracts; however, these species have hairy stems in contrast to the smooth stems of Palmer amaranth and waterhemp.
Palmer amaranth has made it's way into Iowa. Learn how to identify it and how to avoid spreading it to your land.